It is an undisputable historiographical fact that the native population of the Americas was harshly exploited as forced laborers and were concentrated in labor camps (konz.-lagers), especially in the cases of the search for gold and silver. However, from the very practical point of view, the conquistadors’ methods and attitudes were extremely closely related to those of the Vatican’s military-confessional campaigns in the Middle East against the Muslims, in South Europe against the heretic Cathars, or in the Baltics against the local pagans like Prussians and Lithuanians up to 1410 (the Battle of Tannenberg) by the Teutonic Order. All of the conquistadors who came to the New World were ruthless, tough, ambitious, and cruel, but Pedro de Alvarado was in a class by himself. The natives have been living on a narrow subsistence level in pre-1492 times. Cortés then led the exploration of the Yucatán Peninsula in hopes of attaining glory. Where they reckless adventurers or simply paid mercenaries of the Spanish crown? He made a name for himself by ruthlessly participating in the conquest of Cuba, but there was little gold or glory to be had in the Caribbean. Many Indian laborers fell victim to the plague but no one took care of them or get them food. historical sources, that the Spanish conquistadors with purpose infected the autochthonous peoples of the Americas, but on the other hand, the Iberians imposed living conditions upon the American Indians which made them more vulnerable to the imported diseases. In principle, the local types of such brutal mistreatment of the Native Americans by the Spanish colonists and authorities have been manifold. Despite the prohibitions, the history of the Spanish conquest in the Caribbean and eventually Mexico was full of Spanish adventurers, soldiers, and merchants whom all heralded from Converso backgrounds. Known by the natives as "Tonatiuh," or "Sun God" for his blonde hair, Alvarado was Cortés' most trusted lieutenant, and the one Cortés trusted to explore and conquer lands to the south of Mexico. In this conquistadors’ expedition participated de Las Casas as a chaplain who described once again the horrific cruelties inflicted on the Indians by the Spaniards. Well, the answer is far more simple – they were soldiers, more specifically disfranchised, professional soldiers. Many view them as brutal and believe what they did to the natives to be barely human. They got their name from being both conquerors and explorers. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! About 250,000 Spanish men, mostly from the impoverished southern region of Andalusia migrated to the New World during the 16th century; another 200,000 came in the years 1600 to 1650. A Vilnius-based independent researcher and scholar. In 1519, the ambitious Hernán Cortés set out from Cuba with 600 men on an expedition to the mainland in present-day Mexico. Christopher Minster, Ph.D., is a professor at the Universidad San Francisco de Quito in Ecuador. That was the Indian response to the Spanish rape of the local females and attacks on the Indian property. For instance, B. de Las Casas clearly wrote that sheer greed (especially for the gold and silver) was the focal stimulus that was behind the criminal deeds committed by the Spanish colonial authorities. The West European idea of what to do with the Native Americans has been slowly in progress since the mid-16th century. They … In 1519, Cortés entered Tenochtitlán, the capital of the Aztec/Mexica Empire. It has to be clearly noticed that, in fact, the Spanish conquistadors, have not been like medieval West Roman Catholic Crusaders at least from the very formal meaning of this word as the conquistadors did not ever receive some special indulgence from the Roman Catholic pope for their services in the New World. Similar truth was about women too. Meanwhile Spanish migrants poured into the New World. Still, Lope de Aguirre was crazier than most. He is a former head writer at VIVA Travel Guides. However, the newly brought peoples have been deprived of food, water and were housed in unsanitary dwellings. The island of Cuba became totally depopulated due to the forced transfer of around half of a million of the natives to Hispaniola for the sake to replace the Indian workers who had already died there. The fact was that the imperative for conversion into Roman Catholicism accompanied this new type of crusaders to the Americas. There were many cases that enslaved women killed their babies and children and sometimes themselves too due to the harsh living conditions. According to some Spanish historical sources (like the Dominican Bartolome de Las Casas), the conditions of forced labor usually led directly to the death of the Indians in the mines of Hispaniola. Later, his quarrels with Pizarro led to his leading an expedition south, where he discovered present-day Chile but found little more than harsh deserts and mountains and the toughest natives this side of Florida. In conclusion, the Spaniards did not with purpose transmitted different kinds of diseases to the Indians, but so many died of these diseases as a cause of the harsh living and working conditions imposed on them by the Spanish conquerors. Columbus and his conquistadors killed native elites and forced the native into forced labor in both mines and on the land. Even Mexican Aztecs, who had a superior culture in the region, built cities, being engaged in commerce, owned no property, and lived totally at the mercy of their ruler for the Spaniards have been demonstrating the servile and base spirit of the barbarians (“inhumane little men”). From the time of Constantine the Great, the “Labarum” became the banner of the East Roman Empire or the Byzantine Empire. You probably had to be a little crazy to be a conquistador in the first place. Desiderio Hernández Xochitiotzin, Tlaxcala Town Hall. There were some recorded cases that the number of dead mineworkers was so high that their corpses were not buried but rather left to be eaten by wild animals and vulture birds. However, there were those Roman Catholic priests who have been defending converted Indians with two crucial arguments: 1) they became Christians; and 2) they became the subjects of the Spanish crown – therefore, they could not be reduced to forced labor and especially slavery by the Spanish colonial authorities. These unions produced mestizos and mulattos respectively. He took with him back to Spain 20 Indian captives and promised the Spanish monarchs that he would bring them such great wealth that the King and the Queen could be able to finance new Crusades for the sake to liberate Jerusalem from the Muslims. The natives of the Bahamas were very much eliminated like the islands around Puerto Rico. Pope Paul III in his Papal Bull issued in 1537 declared the Indians to be real human and, therefore, capable to receive the Christian faith (to be converted). They brought Catholicism, a religion the Indians didn’t understand. The conquistadors discovered and occupied the Caribbean, Latin America (without Brazil), South and South-West today’s USA, and the Philippines. Satisfactory documentary of Spanish conquest of Aztec city of Tenochtitlan Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. The origins of the Spanish Empire lie in the 15th century. Although the vast majority of the conquistadors came from Spain, … 225,000 migrated during the sixteenth century alone, and 750,000 came during the entire three centuries of Spanish colonial rule. That's what inspired his voyage in the first place! That was a night before the battle of 312 near Rome against Maxentius. While some view them as heroes who blazed a trail for the New World. DOCUMENT 6 The excerpt below is from a letter written by Father Kino, a Catholic Priest, to a friend back in Spain. “The conquistadors who swept through the New World were armed with steel swords.” The Spanish came to the New World with steel, a material the native tribes have not used or perhaps seen until the conquest. The cross was with the inscription “With this sign, you will win”. According to de Las Casas in his expression of grief written to the Spanish King Phillip II (1556−1598, who became the King of Portugal in 1580 as well), the Spanish colonists have been treating the native Indians worse than animals, having little concern for their souls as for the bodies. University lecturer. There were several reasons for such a demographic catastrophe of the Native Americans. Such ideology included and physical elimination of the Native Americans or “barbarians” not being equal with the Iberians regarding their humanity. Juan and Francisco were dead, and Hernando was in prison in Spain. In the Spanish colonies, how did nearly all American Indians die? with free interactive flashcards. Atahualpa agreed to a ransom and soon all the gold and silver of the mighty Empire was flowing into Pizarro's possession. The Great Lady. The main Crusades were a series of expeditions from the 11th to the 14th centuries for the sake to establish Christian (the Roman Catholic) power over the Muslim-controlled holy places of Palestine. With the women and men being separated and never seeing each other, as a result, no biological reproduction was possible, i.e., no new children have been born. When Ch. Columbus first landing in the Bahamas (1492) until the mid-16th century was probably the most terrible period of genocide in the world’s history but, nevertheless, for sure, it was the first genocide in the global history of Modern Time. Regardless of their enviable feats and egregious plundering, the question can naturally be raised – who were these Spanish Conquistadors? The initial timeline of the Spanish conquests of the New World from Ch. Learn term:conquistadors = spanish conquerors in the new world. The Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de Leon traveled to the New World on Columbus’ second voyage. The general term “conquistador” refers to Spanish and Portuguese adventurers/warriors who led the expeditions into the New World during the Age of Exploration. Hoping to claim this wealth and territory for Spain and themselves, conquistadors, or “conquerors,” sailed across the Atlantic Ocean. After... Francisco Pizarro c. 1474-1541. Where were in the first spanish colonies located in the New World? The Catholic monarchs of Spain, King Ferdinand II (of Aragon) and Queen Isabella I (of Castile) showed very little enthusiasm for slavery and, consequently, Ch. 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